Condom use among men who have sex with men

Export Indicator

Percentage of men reporting using a condom the last time they had anal sex with a male partner
What it measures

Progress in preventing exposure to HIV among men who have unprotected anal sex with a male partner

Rationale

Condoms can substantially reduce the risk of sexually transmitting HIV. Consistently and correctly using condoms is therefore important for men who have sex with men because of the high risk of HIV transmission during unprotected anal sex. In addition, men who have anal sex with other men may also have female partners, who could become infected as well. Condom use with the most recent male partner is considered a reliable indicator of longer-term behaviour.

Note: countries with generalized epidemics may also have a concentrated subepidemic among men who have sex with men. If so, calculating and reporting on this indicator for this population would be valuable.

Numerator

Number of men who have sex with men who reported using a condom the last time they had anal sex

Denominator

Number of men who have sex with men who reported having had anal sex with a male partner in the past six months

Calculation

Numerator/denominator

Method of measurement

Behavioural surveillance or other special surveys

In a behavioural survey of a sample of men who have sex with men, respondents are asked about sexual partnerships in the past six months, about anal sex within these partnerships and about condom use when they last had anal sex. Condom use applies whether the respondent is the receptive and insertive partner.

Whenever possible, data for men who have sex with men should be collected with civil society organizations that have worked closely with this population in the field.

Access to men who have sex with men and the data collected from them must remain confidential and secure .

Measurement frequency

Every two years

Disaggregation
  • ƒAge (<25 and 25+ years) ƒ
  • Cities and other administrative areas of importance
Additional information requested

Additional information requested for GAM 2017 reporting;

If there are subnational data available, please provide the disaggregation by administrative area, city, or site in the space provided. Submit the digital version of any available survey reports using the upload tool.

Explanation of the numerator

This includes both regular and non-regular partners, and both paid and unpaid sex. As with all indicators this indicator only provides a limited piece of information. For a comprehensive assessment of patterns of risk associated with male to male sex further information is needed, including information on the types and numbers of partners and whether the individual is the receptive or insertive partner.

Strengths and weaknesses

For men who have sex with men, condom use at last anal sex with any partner indicates well the overall levels and trends in protected and unprotected sex in this population. This indicator does not give any idea of risk behaviour in sex with women among men who have sex with both women and men. In countries in which men in the subpopulation surveyed are likely to have partners of both sexes, condom use with female as well as male partners should be investigated. In these cases, data on condom use should always be presented separately for the female and male partners.

This indicator asks about sex between men in the past six months. If data are available for a different time period, such as the past three or 12 months, please include this information in the metadata in the comments section of the reporting tool.

The data obtained may not be based on a representative national sample of the men who have sex with men being surveyed. If there are concerns that the data are not based on a representative sample, the interpretation of the survey data should reflect these concerns. Where different sources of data exist, the best available estimate should be used. The report submitted with this indicator should include information on the sample size, the quality and reliability of the data and any related issues.

To maximize the utility of these data, it is recommended that the same sample used for calculating this indicator be used for calculating the other indicators related to these populations.

Further information

A framework for monitoring and evaluating HIV prevention programmes for most-at-risk populations. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2007 (http://www.unaids.org/ sites/default/files/sub_landing/files/17_Framework_ME_Prevention_Prog_MARP_E.pdf).

Practical guidelines for intensifying HIV prevention: towards universal access. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2007 (http://data.unaids.org/pub/ Manual/2007/20070306_Prevention_Guidelines_Towards_Universal_Access_en.pdf.

Operational guidelines for monitoring and evaluation of HIV programmes for sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender people. Chapel Hill (NC): MEASURE Evaluation; 2011 (http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/publications/ms-11-49a).