Late HIV Diagnosis

Export Indicator

Percentage of people with HIV infection who already need antiretroviral therapy at the time of diagnosis
What it measures

The efficiency of HIV diagnosis. It documents the proportion of people living with HIV who are diagnosed late.


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to reduce mortality among people living with HIV and efforts are being made globally to scale-up ART. However, people living with HIV can only receive ART once they have been diagnosed with HIV infection. Late HIV diagnosis results in delays in people receiving ART with resultant increases in avoidable illness and death.


Number of people diagnosed with HIV infection who already require antiretroviral therapy at the time of diagnosis. Eligibility should be defined according to national guidelines, where available. Where national guidelines are not available, international guidelines should be used. Currently, these guidelines recommend treatment for any person with HIV with a CD4 count less than 350 cells/mm3 or any person with HIV with an AIDS-defining illness, such as tuberculosis, regardless of CD4 count.


Number of people who are newly diagnosed with HIV infection.


Numerator / Denominator

Method of measurement

Programme monitoring. For the numerator: clinical and/or laboratory records/databases. For the denominator: clinical and/or laboratory records/databases.

Measurement frequency



Age group: (greater than) 15 years,

Gender: Male, Female

Target: Sex workers, Injecting drug users, Men who have sex with men, Prisoners, Other

Explanation of the numerator
Explanation of the denominator
Strengths and weaknesses

Strengths and Weaknesses
This indicator provides information about the efficiency of HIV diagnosis which is a key step in accessing treatment for those who are HIV positive. It does not give information about whether those diagnosed receive ART. It is therefore important that this indicator be analysed alongside an indicator of the percentage of people living with HIV needing ART who receive it.

In order to interpret data from this indicator, a clear understanding is needed of the national policy on eligibility for antiretroviral therapy.

Further information

Further Information
ECDC (2010) Implementing the Dublin Declaration on Partnership to Fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and central Asia: 2010 Progress Report Section 3.1 Treatment and Care pp. 137-144.

Special Note
As for all indicators related to monitoring the Dublin Declaration on Partnership to Fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and central Asia, where a country does not have data for the indicator specified but has data for a similar indicator, the country is welcome to submit such data when reporting. When submitting alternate data, please provide as much detail as possible as to what information is being supplied.