HIV testing among key populations (A–D)

Export Indicator

Percentage of people of a key population who tested for HIV in the past 12 months or who know their current HIV status
What it measures

This indicator is divided into four subindicators:

A. HIV testing among sex workers

B. HIV testing among men who have sex with men

C. HIV testing among people who inject drugs

D. HIV testing among transgender people

What it measures

Progress providing HIV testing services to members of key populations 

Rationale

Ensuring that people living with HIV receive the care and treatment required to live healthy, productive lives and reducing the chance of transmitting HIV require that they know their HIV status. In many countries, targeting testing and counselling at locations and populations with the highest HIV burden is the most efficient way to reach people living with HIV and ensure that they know their HIV status. This indicator captures the effectiveness of HIV testing interventions targeting populations at higher risk of HIV infection.

Numerator

Respondent knows they are living with HIV (answer to Question 3 is “positive”)

or

Respondent reports having tested for HIV in last 12 months and result was negative (answer to Question 2 is “a” or  "b”; answer to Question 3 is “negative”).

 

The number of respondents in the yellow boxes are the numerator.

 

 

Denominator

Number of people in key populations who answered question 1 below.

Calculation

Numerator/denominator

Method of measurement
1. Do you know your HIV status from an HIV test?
 
a. No, I have never been tested
 
b. Yes, I have been tested
 
 
2. If yes, when were you last tested?
 
a. 6 months
 
b. 6–12 months
 
c. More than 12 months
 
 
3. Was the result of your last test:
 
a. Positive
 
b. Negative
 
c. Indeterminate
Measurement frequency

Annual

Disaggregation

A, C and D: Gender (female, male and transgender)

A-D: Age (<25 and 25+ years) 

A-D: Cities and other administrative areas of importance

Additional information requested

If there are subnational data available, please provide the disaggregation by administrative area, city, or site in the space provided. Submit the digital version of any available survey reports using the upload tool.

Strengths and weaknesses

HIV testing and counselling is the necessary first step to addressing a person’s HIV infection. People living with HIV must be aware of their HIV status and take the subsequent steps towards prevention and treatment services to prevent transmission of the virus. National programmes aim to have 90% of people who are living with HIV know their HIV status. The revision of this indicator strengthens its meaning, providing a more valid measure of progress in assuring that people affected by the HIV epidemic are taking up testing. By using a 12-month reference period, the previous testing indicator failed to capture people known to be living with HIV for a long time. This new formulation corrects that.

The new formulation of this question may not be fully implemented in many surveys yet, leading to reduced reporting in the near term. Respondents may be unwilling to accurately answer questions about their HIV status, leading to under-reporting of testing coverage among people living with HIV.

Further information

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO, UNAIDS, FHI 360. Biobehavioural survey guidelines for populations at risk for HIV. Atlanta: United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; forthcoming.