Co-management of tuberculosis and HIV treatment

Export Indicator

Percentage of estimated HIV-positive incident tuberculosis (TB) cases that received treatment for both TB and HIV
What it measures

Progress in detecting and treating TB among people living with HIV

Rationale

TB is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV, including those receiving antiretroviral therapy. Intensified TB case-finding and access to quality diagnosis and treatment of TB in accordance with international/national guidelines are essential to improve the quality and quantity of life for people living with HIV. A measure of the percentage of HIV-positive TB patients that access appropriate treatment for their TB and HIV is important.

Numerator

Number of HIV-positive new and relapse TB patients started on TB treatment during the reporting period who were already on antiretroviral therapy or started on antiretroviral therapy during TB treatment within the reporting year

Denominator

Estimated number of incident TB cases in people living with HIV

WHO calculates annual estimates of the number of incident TB cases in people living with HIV. The 2015 denominator estimates, provided by countries on notification and antiretroviral therapy coverage, become available only in August of the reporting year and do not need to be provided at the time of reporting. The estimates for 2016 are available at: http://www.who.int/tb/country/data/download/en.

Calculation

Numerator/denominator

Method of measurement

Facility antiretroviral therapy registers and reports; programme monitoring tools

Programme data and estimates of incident TB cases in people living with HIV

Measurement frequency

Data should be collected continuously at the facility level, aggregated periodically, preferably monthly or quarterly, and reported annually. The most recent year for which data and estimates are available should be reported here.

Disaggregation
  • Sex 
  • Age (<15 and 15+ years) 
  • Cities
Additional information requested

Please provide city-specific data for this indicator. Space has been created in the data entry sheet to provide information for the capital city as well as one or two other key cities of high epidemiological relevance: for example, those that have the highest HIV burden or have committed to ending AIDS by 2030.

Strengths and weaknesses

Adequate detection and treatment of TB will prolong the lives of people living with HIV and reduce the community burden of TB. WHO provides annual estimates of the burden of TB among people living with HIV, based on the best available country estimates of HIV prevalence and TB incidence. All people living with HIV newly infected with TB should start TB treatment and antiretroviral therapy within eight weeks of starting TB treatment, regardless of CD4 count. The people with both HIV and TB with profound immunosuppression (such as CD4 counts less than 50 cells/mm3 ) should receive antiretroviral therapy within the first two weeks of initiating TB treatment. TB treatment should be started in accordance with national TB programme guidelines.

This indicator measures the extent to which collaboration between national TB and HIV programmes ensures that people living with HIV and TB are able to access appropriate treatment for both diseases. However, this indicator will be affected by low uptake of HIV testing, poor access to HIV care services and antiretroviral therapy and poor access to TB diagnosis and treatment. Separate indicators for each of these factors should be referred to when interpreting the results of this indicator.

It is important that those providing HIV care and antiretroviral therapy record TB diagnosis and treatment, since this information has implications for antiretroviral therapy eligibility and choice of antiretroviral regimen. It is therefore recommended that the date TB treatment starts be recorded in the antiretroviral register.

Further information

WHO policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012 (http://apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/10665/44789/1/9789241503006_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1).

Global tuberculosis report 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 (http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en).

A guide to monitoring and evaluation for collaborative TB/HIV activities: 2015 revision. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 (http://www.who. int/tb/publications/monitoring-evaluation-collaborative-tb-hiv/en).